In a latest examine printed within the Journal Vitamins, researchers investigated the consequences of vitamin D/iron statuses and calcium consumption on lumbar cortical and trabecular bone in male adults aged 15-19.
Research: The Relationship between Bone Health Parameters, Vitamin D and Iron Standing, and Dietary Calcium Consumption in Younger Males. Picture Credit score: Tatjana Baibakova/Shutterstock.com
There are a number of information gaps in analysis on the consequences of vitamins on bones. First, analysis has centered solely on the cortical a part of the bones or their metabolism, not the trabecular.
Second, the outcomes from research (most performed utilizing animal fashions) investigating the consequences of micronutrients, as an illustration, vitamin D, on trabecular bone construction should be clarified.
Third, the little analysis performed on human topics has centered on the aged inhabitants, which is why it stays obscured how the supply of some vitamins is crucial for sustaining a wholesome skeleton in adults and for bone progress and growth throughout childhood.
One other problem with analysis on the unique results of vitamin D on bone well being is that almost all have relied on computed measures of a complete of 25(OH)D in serum as a substitute of the free fraction of 25(OH)D; the latter is a superior measure of vitamin D standing for bone well being.
Moreover, regardless of proof of a cause-and-effect relationship between vitamin D (with calcium) and the danger of low-trauma bone fractures, the connection between vitamin D standing and bone mineral density (BMD) stays ambiguous.
Lastly, information on the affiliation between iron deficiency (ID) and bone well being are restricted.
In regards to the examine
Within the current examine, researchers analyzed information from 113 younger male topics who met the next standards: i) aged between 15-19; ii) engaged in some osteogenic sports activities (volleyball or ski leaping) or had been non-athletes (constituted the management group); iii) didn’t endure from any injury throughout the 12 months earlier than the examine; iv) had physique mass index (BMI) under 15 kg/m2 and above 37 kg/m2; and v) supplied knowledgeable consent.
Of those 113 contributors, 76 had been from Polish nationwide youth ski leaping and volleyball groups (28 ski jumpers, 48 volleyball gamers), and 37 had been non-athletes.
The staff obtained the bone densitometry, lumbar spine bone mineral obvious density (BMAD), and trabecular bone rating (TBS) measurements utilizing dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
Moreover, they evaluated physique iron shops (Fe_S) primarily based on serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) ranges.
Moreover, they decided every participant’s dietary calcium consumption utilizing a semi-quantitative meals frequency questionnaire.
The outcomes confirmed a optimistic relationship between BMAD and Z-score and the vitamin D serum ranges, with the affiliation being stronger for the free fraction 25 (OH) D than the generally used complete fraction.
Free 25(OH)D defined 25% of the full 32% of BMAD variation within the lumbar spine measurements of the sports activities group.
It’s noteworthy right here that the free fraction constitutes solely 0.1–2% of the full hydroxy vitamin D within the human physique, whereas the remaining circulates within the blood sure to albumin and primarily with vitamin D-binding proteins (VDBPs), implying, no less than theoretically, that the connection between each needs to be comparable throughout all people.
Nevertheless, on this examine, the correlation between these two fractions within the athletes was decrease than controls (0.77 vs. 0.93). Due to this fact, the authors presumed that bodily train impacts the full hydroxy vitamin D fraction by influencing the VDBP ranges.
Additional, the authors famous that 22% and 15% of the athletes and controls, respectively, had been iron-deficient.
Whereas their ferritin and iron shops concurrently correlated with BMAD, no such correlation emerged with the Z-score within the sports activities group, which, to some extent, was attributable to the shortage of adjustment of the Z-score to peak.
Of the full 32% of BMAD variation noticed within the lumbar spine measurements of the sports activities group, 7% was defined by ferritin, suggesting it’s a extra dependable indicator of bone mineralization in athletes than the calculated iron shops.
Moreover, the standard calcium consumption didn’t influence BMAD in each teams. Because the noticed complete fraction of 25(OH)D was low in each teams, it may have modulated calcium absorption within the intestine.
Throughout puberty, excessive calcium retention effectivity possible compensates for low calcium consumption.
Nevertheless, extended vitamin D deficiency (even average) in maturity could severely impair dietary calcium absorption within the intestine, leading to elevated bone loss.
The authors discovered no relationship between the dietary elements analyzed on this examine and the trabecular construction of bones.
Although each BMAD and Z-score correlated with the TBS within the controls, the correlation coefficients differed, whereas no such correlation existed within the sports activities group.
Furthermore, the “Fractures” issue was comparable in examined teams and impartial of mineralization and TBS within the lumbar spine, suggesting that it could be impartial of the extent of bodily exercise and related overloads.
The outcomes of the current examine confirmed the optimistic affect of regular vitamin D and iron standing on cortical bone standing in bodily lively athletes.
Of their bone mineralization assessments, the free 25(OH)D fraction appeared as a greater indicator than the full 25(OH)D and ferritin than calculated physique iron shops.
Past dietary elements, outcomes prompt that their bone mineralization assessments needs to be adjusted-for-height BMAD, not uncooked aBMD information.
Moreover, in these athletes, osteogenic bodily workout routines (e.g., jumps) additionally presumably have an effect on trabecular bone.
- Malczewska-Lenczowska, J.; Surała, O.; Granda, D.; Szczepańska, B.; Czaplicki, A.; Kubacki, R. (2024) The Relationship between Bone Health Parameters, Vitamin D and Iron Standing, and Dietary Calcium Consumption in Younger Males. Vitamins 16, 215. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020215.