What is a Spinal Cord Injury?
A Spinal Cord Injury ( SCI ) is damage to the spinal cord nerve that results in a loss of body function, such as mobility / waking and/or loss of feeling / sensation. Frequent causes of spinal cord injuries are trauma (car or bike accident, gunshot, falls, etc.) or disease (polio, spina bifida, Friedreich’s ataxia, etc.).
The most people a loss of body function or sensation or loss of both body functions and sensation occurs. In fact, in most people suffering spinal cord injury, the cord is intact, but the damage to it results in loss of body functions.
Some most causes/results of spinal cord injury:-
- An accident ( Car, Bike, etc.)
- Diving into water that’s too shallow and hitting the bottom ( Swimming pool, Sea, River, etc.)
- Falling from a significant height
- Spinal injuries during sporting events
- A violent attack such as a stabbing or a gunshot
- Electrical accidents
Read more about “Spinal Cord Injury”
A Spinal Cord Injury is damage or broken to the spinal cord nerve that causes permanent or temporary changes in its body functions. The Symptoms may include loss of muscle functions, “Feeling / Sensation”, or autonomic function in the parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the injury. Injury can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be complete, with a total loss of body sensation, uncontrol of bowel and bladder and muscle functions at lower sacral segments, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel past the injured area of the cord nerve up to the Sacral S4-S5 spinal cord segments. Depending on the location and severity of the damage, the symptoms vary, from numbness to paralysis, including bowel or bladder incontinence. Long-term outcomes also range widely, from full recovery to permanent “Tetraplegia” (also called “Quadriplegia”) or Paraplegia. The Complications can include muscle atrophy, loss of voluntary motor control, spasticity, pressure sores, infections, and breathing problems.
In the majority of cases the damage results from physical trauma such as car or bike accidents, gunshot wounds, falls, or sports injuries, but it can also result from nontraumatic causes such as infection, insufficient blood flow, and tumours. Just over half of injuries affect the Cervical Spine, while 15% occur in each of the Thoracic Spine, the border between the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine, and the Lumbar Spine alone. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and medical imaging.
Efforts to prevent Spinal Cord Injury include individual measures such as using safety equipment, societal measures such as safety regulations in sports and traffic, and improvements to equipment. Treatment starts with restricting further motion of the spine and maintaining adequate blood pressure. Corticosteroids have not been found to be useful. Other interventions vary depending on the location and extent of the injury, from bed rest to surgery. In many cases, “Spinal Cord Injuries” require long-term physical therapy and occupational therapy, especially if it interferes with activities of daily living. Also, patients need Rehabilitation training after injury.
In the United States, about 12,000 people a year survive a spinal cord injury. The most commonly affected group are young adult males.SCI has seen great improvements in its care since the middle of the 20th century. Research into potential treatments includes stem cell implantation, hypothermia, engineered materials for tissue support, epidural spinal stimulation, and wearable robotic exoskeletons.